Antibiotics can be used as life-saving therapies, but many experts believe they are prescribed more frequently than they should be. This practice puts individuals at risk of dangerous side effects and exposes the public to drug-resistant bacteria.
To better understand how antibiotics should be prescribed, Dr. Matthew Kronman, an infectious disease expert at Seattle Children’s Hospital and a member of Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Clinical and Translational Research, led a study published today by the American Academy of Pediatrics, addressing how antibiotics are used to treat common respiratory infections. He discovered there are approximately 11.4 million unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions written to children and teens each year in the United States.
We asked Kronman the following questions to learn more about the overprescribing of antibiotics and his recently published research:
Why aren’t antibiotics appropriate to treat all respiratory infections?
Kronman: Respiratory infections are one of the most common reasons children and adolescents receive prescriptions for antibiotics, but not all of these illnesses benefit from antibiotic use. Antibiotics are only effective in treating bacterial infections. Many respiratory infections are viral, and therefore, not helped by antibiotics. Read full post »
Have you ever wondered what kind of research is happening at Seattle Children’s? Seattle Children’s Research Institute is giving you a glimpse inside the hospital and labs in the new video series “Faces of Research.”
In two-minute videos, KOMO News’ Molly Shen talks with eight Children’s scientists and doctors about their work to better understand, treat and cure the diseases, conditions and health issues that affect children such as epilepsy, liver disease, HIV, congenital heart defects, mitochondrial disease, cancer, disorders of the immune system, and disparities in physical activity and nutrition.
The videos feature: Drs. Rebecca Gardner, Franck Kalume, Lisa Maves, Jason Mendoza, Karen Murray, Albert Quintana, Troy Torgerson and Thor Wagner.
Watch the videos below or see them all online.
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Dr. Megan Moreno, investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development and adolescent medicine expert at Seattle Children’s Hospital.
Today’s teens are the first “digital natives” who have grown up with the internet. So much of what they learn about online safety comes from their peers, but what lessons are they teaching one another? To find out, Dr. Megan Moreno, an investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development and adolescent medicine expert at Seattle Children’s Hospital, led a study to discover what teens felt were key safety issues and what messages they could be sharing with their peers. She shares her findings here:
Most teens today, including those I see in clinic each week, spend time on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. While these sites provide adolescents with numerous benefits, including social support and exposure to new ideas, there are also risks of internet use, such as cyberbullying and invasion of privacy. Educating adolescents about how to protect their privacy and use the internet safely may prevent many risks. However, there aren’t any widespread, tested and comprehensive resources available to teach these skills to teens because the internet is still a relatively new phenomenon. Most teens say they learn about internet safety from their peers, but it’s unclear what lessons they may be learning in this way. Our research team led a study to discover what teens felt were key safety issues and what messages they could be sharing with their peers. Read full post »
Brenda Senger and her daughter Tessa.
Tessa Senger, of Spokane, Wash., appeared to be a perfectly healthy child until she began having seizures at age 4. Her mother, Brenda Senger, took Tessa to a local neurologist, who diagnosed her with epilepsy. But the treatments prescribed to Tessa did not lessen her seizures, which were occurring up to 50 times each day. Tessa grew weaker and began losing weight.
“I felt helpless,” her mom said. “I just wanted her seizures to stop and for her to start growing again.”
Eventually, Tessa was referred to Seattle Children’s Hospital, where Dr. Russell Saneto, director of the Mitochondrial Medicine and Metabolism Care Team at Seattle Children’s and an investigator at Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Developmental Therapeutics, diagnosed her with a mitochondrial disease. Saneto prescribed a vitamin cocktail and seizure medications that changed Tessa’s life. The tiny girl, who weighed just 35 pounds until age 6, finally started gaining weight and her seizures stopped almost completely. Tessa is now 15 years old and has only had two seizures since second grade. She is healthy enough to begin reducing her seizure medications.
“Tessa is just thriving year after year,” Senger said. “I am thankful every day that we found Dr. Saneto and the support of Seattle Children’s Hospital.”
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Dr. Laura Richardson, adolescent medicine specialist at Seattle Children’s Hospital and principal investigator in the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at Seattle Children’s Research Institute.
A new study from Seattle Children’s Research Institute suggests integrating mental health treatment into primary care may reduce depression symptoms in teens.
Challenges accessing treatment
While 14% of teens experience serious depression, few receive evidence-based treatments for mental illness. This puts them at greater risk of suicide, substance abuse, early pregnancy, low educational attainment, recurrent depression and poor long-term health.
Accessing mental health treatment can be challenging for patients and their families. In the typical clinic, teens diagnosed with depression by a primary care doctor are referred to mental health specialists for treatment, requiring their families to identify an available specialist, set up an appointment and travel to a new care setting. Dr. Laura Richardson, an adolescent medicine specialist at Seattle Children’s Hospital and principal investigator in the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at Seattle Children’s Research Institute, said she often sees patients who have not been able to connect with a mental health provider return to her with worse depression symptoms. Read full post »
Finding mental health treatments without unwanted side effects can be challenging, but scientists at Seattle Children’s Research Institute (SCRI) have discovered an area of the brain that could one day be targeted to treat depression more effectively.
Dr. Eric Turner, a principal investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Integrative Brain Research, together with lead author Dr. Yun-Wei (Toni) Hsu, also from Seattle Children’s Research Institute, learned that a tiny region of the brain – the dorsal medial habenula –controls the motivation to exercise and participate in other rewarding activities in mice, and potentially in humans. Exercise is one of the most effective non-pharmacological therapies for depression, so determining which part of the brain may be responsible for exercise motivation could help researchers develop more targeted treatments.
“Changes in physical activity and the inability to enjoy rewarding or pleasurable experiences are two hallmarks of major depression,” Turner said. “But the brain pathways responsible for exercise motivation have not been well understood. Now, we can seek ways to manipulate activity within this specific area of the brain without impacting the rest of the brain’s activity.” Read full post »
Experts have long believed that when the risk of a disease is high, people are more likely to accept a vaccine to prevent that disease. But recent research suggests that might not be uniformly true. Dr. Elizabeth Wolf, an investigator in Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, led a study that determined Washington’s recent pertussis (whooping cough) epidemic did not influence the number of infants who were vaccinated against the disease.
Pertussis is an extremely contagious bacterial disease that can lead to pneumonia, seizures, brain damage and death. In 2012, the United States experienced the largest pertussis epidemic since the 1950s. There were 20 deaths reported nationally, the majority of which were infants. Washington reported one of the highest incidence rates of pertussis. The state also has one of the highest nonmedical vaccination exemption rates from required kindergarten vaccinations.
“Vaccination rates are below public health goals, both locally and nationally,” Wolf said. “We need to better understand what factors might impact vaccine acceptance.” Read full post »
Dr. Kym Ahrens (left) with Camp Inside-Out colleagues (left to right), Heather Spielvogle, Mavis Bonnar and Alexis Coatney.
This month, Dr. Kym Ahrens is going to camp with 24 teenagers.
Some people would call that an adventure; others, a challenge.
Ahrens calls it research.
Ahrens, an adolescent medicine specialist and researcher within Seattle Children’s Research Institute’s Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, is studying whether an intensive, five-day “dose” of a specially designed camp can give teens in foster care the skills they need to steer clear of risky sexual behaviors.
It’s a big deal because teens in foster care are at much higher risk than their peers for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
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This is a special guest post from JoNel Aleccia, staff writer at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. See the original article and photos here.
Rachel Dixon holds her son Ezra, who was born with SCID. Nearly two months after having a life-saving bone marrow transplant from his brother, he’s doing well. Photo courtesy of Bo Jungmayer / Fred Hutch News Service
Ezra Dixon was born April 7, four months after the state of Washington first starting screening newborns for the disorder commonly known as “bubble boy disease,” which leaves its patients at the mercy of common germs.
Some 22,610 babies were tested before him and more than 28,000 have been tested since, all negative, health records show. But Ezra is different.
The bald, blue-eyed boy is the only child in the state so far diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency, or SCID, detected through the program.
When staff at the Washington State Department of Health Newborn Screening Lab analyzed the drop of blood pricked from his heel shortly after birth, they found none of the T-cells that protect the body from infection, a certain sign of the rare disorder.
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Complications that can arise around the time of birth may reduce oxygen and blood flow to a baby’s brain, causing hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a leading cause of death or neurological impairment among infants. In the past eight years, cooling therapy (hypothermia) has become the standard form of care for HIE, as it’s been found to be effective in reducing brain injury, but doctors say it’s not enough – about half of affected infants still have a poor outcome.
For this reason, researchers have launched a nationwide study, called the Neonatal Erythropoietin and Therapeutic Hypothermia Outcomes in Newborn Brain Injury (NEAT-O), to see if using the hormone erythropoietin (Epo) in conjunction with cooling therapy may further reduce the risk of neurologic deficits in full-term infants (at least 36 weeks gestation) with HIE.
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